The Scandinavian Countries

Scandinavia lanscape

Scandinavia is a large region in northern Europe that is made up of the Scandinavian Peninsula.  It is the largest peninsula in Europe and it extends from above the Arctic Circle to the North and Baltic Seas. Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region covering much of Northern Europe. In addition, although not part of the actual peninsula,  Denmark, Finland and Iceland are also included in Scandinavia.


The southernmost Scandinavian country, Denmark,  is located in Northern Europe north of Germany, and consists of the Jutland peninsula and over 400 islands, some of which are linked to the mainland by bridges. The topography of Denmark consists mostly of low and flat plains. The highest point in Denmark is Mollehoj/Ejer Bavnehoj at 561 feet (171 m), while its lowest point is Lammefjord at -23 feet (-7 m). The climate of Denmark is mainly temperate and it has cool but humid summers and windy, mild winters.. Windmills and traditional thatched cottages can be seen everywhere. Note that the Faroe Islands and Greenland both belong to the Kingdom of Denmark.


Also called “The Land of Vikings and the Midnight Sun,” Norway is located in Northern Europe on the Scandinavian Peninsula between the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean. Norway’s topography is varied with high plateaus and rugged, glaciated mountain ranges that are separated by fertile valleys and plains. It also has a rugged coastline that is made up of many fjords. Its climate is temperate along the coast due to the North Atlantic Current, while inland it is cold and wet.


Sweden is also located in Northern Europe on the Scandinavian Peninsula. It is bordered to the west by Norway and Finland to the east and it is along the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia. It offers numerous lakes and is the largest of the Scandinavian countries both in land size and population. The topography of Sweden flat to rolling lowlands as well as mountains in its western areas near Norway. Its highest point, Kebnekaise at 2,111 m, is located there. The climate of Sweden is temperate in the south and subarctic in the north.


Finland is a Northern European country that is located between Sweden and Russia and northern border with Norway.Finland has coasts along Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland. The topography of Finland consists of low rolling plains as well as many lakes. The highest point in Finland is Haltiatunturi at 4,357 feet (1,328 m). Finland’s climate is cold temperate and as such, it is relatively mild despite its high latitude. This is due to the moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current and many lakes. Finland also has one of the lowest immigration rates in the world.